The Old Testament
Return to Glory to the FatherDivine Law - God's will made known to man through the Prophets and Revelation
The Mosaic Law identified in the Old Testament of the Bible
as the Divine Law
is contained in the Pentateuch (first five books in Bible - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
A. Mosaic Law was revealed by God to Moses c.a. 500 B.C. and was composed of:
Civil Law - Regulated relations among the People of God and their neighbors.
Ceremonial Law - Regulated matters of religion and worship of God.
B. Moral Law (Higher Law) - Divine Code of Ethics containing the universal principles
of fairness, morality and justice.
C. Natural Law - Codified in the Ten Commandments. Written in the hearts of man.
We know what we must do / what we must avoid.
Do to others what you would have them do to you (Golden Rule).
D. Gathered from nature.
E. Summed up in the Decalogue (Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy). Inspired by God, promulgated by Moses.
F. Parts known long before Moses wrote them down. The basis of all true civilization.
G. Standard for the Jewish Nation & Christianity.
The Ten Commandments:
I I the Lord am your God, you shall not have other gods besides me,
for I am a jealous God.
II You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.
III Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day for the Lord has made it holy.
IV Honor your father and your mother.
V You shall not kill.
VI You shall not commit adultery.
VII You shall not steal.
VIII You shall not bear false witness.
IX You shall not covet your neighbor's wife.
X You shall not covet your neighbor's goods.
Mosaic Civil Law contained imperfections but was suited to the
low stage level of civilization at that time.
Foreign residents treated fairly.
Absence of torture and mutilation.
Punishment for transgressors.
Fewer cases of capital punishment than other societies.
Material rewards result from God's pleasure, i.e. wealth, large family, good health, success in
battle/business, public esteem for followers and long life.
Mosaic Civil Law was Superior to other codes of Civil Law at
Babylonia - Code of Hammurabi c.a. 1790 B.C., An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
Assyrian Laws - Code of Assura c.a. 1075 B.C.
Hittite Laws c.a. 1500-1400 B.C.
Sharia Laws (Islamic Laws) c.a. 570 B.C.
Draconian Constitution c.a. 700 B.C.
Manusmriti c.a. 200 B.C.
Twelve Tables of Roman Law c.a. 451 B.C.